ZielOrientierte ProjektPlanung
Planificación de Proyectos orientada a Objetivos


Estrechamente vinculado con el Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación en el contexte de Proyectos es el Sistema de Información:

Informaciones son conocimientos orientados a una finalidad (información para acción)
Los responsables del Proyecto en primer lugar necesitan informaciones para tomar decisiones.
Datos por si mismos todavía no representan ninguna información. Hay que prepararlos, es decir analizarlos e interpretarlos, para generar los conocimientos acerca de la finalidad en cuestión.
La cantidad necesaria de informaciones se tiene que estimar con cuidado. Una recolección de datos sin límites no sirve para generar las informaciones necesarias.

Antes de establecer un Sistema de Información se tiene que aclarar lo siguiente:

Quién necesita la información?
Qué tipo de información se necesita?
Para qué se necesita esta información? Eso determina p.ej. el grado de detalle, el grado de formalidad, la forma de presentación etc.
Cuándo se necesita esta información?
A quién se pasará esta información?

Monitoreo y Evaluación

Monitoreo y Evaluación forman la base de información necesaria para la Gestión de Proyecto en todos los niveles que embarca la Matriz de Planificación del Proyecto (MPP).
Monitoreo significa la observación y el registro sistemático y continuo de acontecimientos determinados en un período de tiempo. Dentro del marco del método ZOPP el Monitoreo se refiere en primer lugar al seguimiento de la ejecución de las Actividades.
En base del Monitoreo se puede hacer la comparación de lo planificado con lo realizado.
Evaluación significa el control del logro de ciertos estándares o criterios establecidos. Dentro del marco del método ZOPP la Evaluación se refiere en primer lugar a los Objetivos y Resultados.
En base de los Indicadores se mide el impacto de las intervenciones al nivel de los Resultados y Objetivos.
El Monitoreo también contiene ciertos elementos de evaluación, es decir la interpretación de datos, por la cual se genera la información.
La Evaluación también puede contener elementos de monitoreo p.ej. al nivel de los parámetros definidos en los Indicadores.

Bibliografía sobre Monitoreo y Evaluación * M + E

Trochim, William M.
The Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. It covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. The Knowledge Base was designed to be different from the many typical commercially-available research methods texts. It uses an informal, conversational style to engage both the newcomer and the more experienced student of research. It is a fully hyperlinked text that can be integrated easily into an existing course structure or used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher who simply wants to browse.[
Introduction to Evaluation
Evaluation is a methodological area that is closely related to, but distinguishable from more traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Here we introduce the idea of evaluation and some of the major terms and issues in the field.
Planning-Evaluation Cycle
Often, evaluation is construed as part of a larger managerial or administrative process. Sometimes this is referred to as the planning-evaluation cycle. The distinctions between planning and evaluation are not always clear; this cycle is described in many different ways with various phases claimed by both planners and evaluators. Usually, the first stage of such a cycle -- the planning phase -- is designed to elaborate a set of potential actions, programs, or technologies, and select the best for implementation.
Evaluation Culture
I took the idea of an evaluation culture from a wonderful paper written by Donald Campbell in 1969 entitled 'Methods for an Experimenting Society.' Following in the footsteps of that paper, this one is considerably more naive and utopian. And, I have changed the name of this idealized society to reflect terminology that is perhaps more amenable to the climate of the 1990s. For the term experimenting, I have substituted the softer and broader term evaluating. And for the term society, I have substituted the more internationally-flavored term culture. With these shifts in emphasis duly noted, I want you to know that I see the evaluation culture as one that a member of the experimenting society would feel comfortable visiting, and perhaps even thinking of taking as a permanent residence.

Introduction to Concept Mapping for Planning and Evaluation
William M.K. Trochim, Cornell University


Concept mapping is a type of structured conceptualization which can be used by groups to develop a conceptual framework which can guide evaluation or planning. In the typical case, six steps are involved: 1) Preparation (including selection of participants and development of focus for the conceptualization); 2) the Generation of statements; 3) the Structuring of statements; 4) the Representation of Statements in the form of a concept map (using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis); 5) the Interpretation of maps; and, 6) the Utilization of Maps. Concept mapping encourages the group to stay on task; results relatively quickly in an interpretable conceptual framework; expresses this framework entirely in the language of the participants; yields a graphic or pictorial product which simultaneously shows all major ideas and their interrelationships; often improves group or organizational cohesiveness and morale. This paper describes each step in the process, considers major methodological issues and problems, and discusses computer programs which can be used to accomplish the process.
Presentación del Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación en MS PowerPoint
Search for Evaluation and Sustainability
1 Evaluación del progreso hacia la sostenibilidad : enfoque, métodos, herramientas y experiencias de campo - IUCN, Strategies for Sustainability Programme ; International Development Research Centre ; Swiss Development Cooperation - 1997.

2 Overview : approach, methods, tools and field experience - IUCN, Strategies for Sustainability Programme ; International Development Research Centre ; Swiss Development Cooperation - 1997.
The Monitoring and Evaluation Initiative.
About the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) M&E Initiative.
This site is a contribution to the work of the IUCN Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Initiative.

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